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3D Sketch Maps

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3D Sketch Maps

The 3D Sketch Maps project, funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation in the scope of the Sinergia funding program, investigates 3D sketch maps from a theoretical, empirical, cognitive, as well as tool-​related perspective, with a particular focus on Extended Reality (XR) technologies. Sketch mapping is an established research method in fields that study human spatial decision-​making and information processing, such as navigation and wayfinding. Although space is naturally three-​dimensional (3D), contemporary research has focused on assessing individuals’ spatial knowledge with two-​dimensional (2D) sketches. For many domains though, such as aviation or the cognition of complex multilevel buildings, it is essential to study people’s 3D understanding of space, which is not possible with the current 2D methods.


  • Prof. Dr. Martin Raubal (Principal Investigator)
  • Dr. Peter Kiefer (Substitute ETH Project Lead)
  • Sailin Zhong (Post-Doctoral researcher)
  • Tianyi Xiao (Doctoral student)


Former Staff/Collaborators

  • Dr. Kevin Gonyop Kim (Post-Doctoral researcher, geoGaze)
  • Dr. Christian Vater (Post-Doctoral researcher, Chair of Cognitive Science, ETH Zurich)



  • Start Date: 01.11.2021
  • End Date: 31.10.2025